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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-19

Oral leukoplakia and its malignant transformation as a diagnostic tool in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A retrospective clinicopathological study

1 Department of Public Health, UWA School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Australia
2 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Rama Dental College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Pedodontics, Rama Dental College, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kriti Garg
117/K-68, Sarvodaya Nagar, Kanpur - 208 025, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_33_19

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Context: Oral leukoplakia is considered as potentially malignant disease and oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in various countries. Aims: The aim of this study is to assess the rate of malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Settings and Design: A total of 165 patients were included in the study in 2-month duration. Subjects and Methods: Clinically and histopathologically confirmed cases of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant disorders were retrospectively studied. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics included calculation of percentages. Data distribution was assessed for normality using Shapiro–Wilk test. Categorical data were compared using Chi-square test. Results: Among 165 cases, 55.46% of males were affected as compared to females and mostly patients of both sexes were of 40–50 years of age. A total of 140 oral leukoplakia cases were present with 59.28% of males and 40.71% of females, whereas only 25 other premalignant cases were reported with 44% of males and 56% of females. 69.28% and 52% of oral leukoplakia and other premalignant cases were involved in buccal mucosa. Histopathological analysis stated that out of 140 oral leukoplakia cases, 39.28% were present with malignant transformation and P value was 0.0007. Conclusions: Malignant changes of oral leukoplakia play an important role in the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma and males are more at risk to develop malignancy; therefore, close observation, early diagnosis, appropriate treatment plan, and prognosis are required to prevent malignant transformation.

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