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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2020
Volume 6 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 33-86

Online since Saturday, October 31, 2020

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SHORT REVIEW  

Effect of adversities in endodontics on maxillary sinus: Maxillary sinusitis of endodontic origin – A short review p. 33
Thimmanagowda N Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_14_20  
Maxillary sinusitis of endodontic origin is basically an endodontic infection extending into the maxillary sinus. Scientific research and prevalence show that periapical infections manifesting in the sinus are under appreciated and gets neglected by specialists. Better understanding of the origin and the condition and the discussion with ENT specialists is important to diagnose endodontic origin of sinusitis and to differentiate sinogenic sinusitis. Identification and treatment of maxillary sinusitis of endodontic origin is of utmost importance as these left untreated can lead to persistence of sinus disease with failure of the medical therapies and the progression to more advanced stage or even life-threatening cranio-facial infections.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Oral health status among human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients visiting ART center in Chennai: A cross-sectional study p. 38
TK Sivabakya, G Srinivas
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_19_20  
Background: Oral health status of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals is in poor condition which may be a sequela of variety of factors. Aim and Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the oral health status of HIV-positive patients visiting the Chennai antiretroviral therapy center. Materials and Methods: A total of 43 people who were HIV positive were recruited for the study. Oral health status was recorded using the World Health Organization oral health assessment form (2003). Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Majority (62.8%) of the people suffering from HIV belonged to upper lower class. The mean for decayed, missing, and filled teeth score in HIV-positive individuals was found to be 12.56 ± 4.14. Nearly 75% of HIV-positive individuals showed oromucosal lesions, with candidiasis (30.2%) being the most common. Nearly 50% of HIV-positive individuals had community periodontal index and loss of attachment score >2. It was more than a year since 83.5% of the participants had made a visit to the dentist. Conclusion: In conclusion, HIV-positive people have poor oral health status and poor periodontal condition. To take care of this high-risk group's oral health, effective policies must be drafted.
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Pretreatment assessment of anxiety levels among patients undergoing surgical and nonsurgical therapy – A cross-sectional study p. 42
A Suchetha, Surya Suprabhan, BM Darshan, N Sapna, SM Apoorva, Salman Khawar
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_12_20  
Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the comparison of pretreatment anxiety levels among patients undergoing nonsurgical and surgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were included in the study. In Group A, 50 patients undergoing nonsurgical periodontal therapy for the first time were included, whereas in Group B, 50 patients undergoing surgical periodontal therapy for the first time were included. Matching was done with respect to age and gender for both the groups. Just before the procedure, a questionnaire form containing modified dental anxiety score was used to check anxiety levels. Once the patient had marked the score, total score was calculated. The collected data were tabulated and analyzed statistically using the independent student t-test. Results: There was no significant difference in the pretreatment anxiety levels between both the test groups. Pretreatment anxiety was more among females in both groups compared to males. Conclusion: In this study, there was no statistical difference between both the test groups. However, there are some studies which show that surgical group is less anxious than nonsurgical group; hence, a larger sample size is needed to confirm these findings. Further studies are needed to address the dental anxiety levels in different populations' age wise and gender wise, which will help dental-care providers to better manage their patients.
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Clinicopathological analysis of 847 odontogenic cysts in North Indian population examined over 10 years' period: A retrospective study p. 50
Md Kalim Ansari, Sharique Alam, Fatima Meraj, Syed Sayeed Ahmed, Shaikh Amjad Khan Munir
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_9_20  
Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze and report the prevalence, frequency, sex distribution, site distribution, and clinicopathological features of odontogenic cysts in an institutional academic dental hospital by studying the biopsy specimens and clinical records obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Department of Pathology, AMU, Aligarh, India, during the past 10 years. Materials and Methods: Data on odontogenic jaw cysts treated between 2009 and 2018 were retrieved from clinical files; imaging and histopathology reports and a total of 847 patients were included. In each case, we analyzed age, gender, type and number of cysts, and cyst location. Imaging characteristics and pathologies associated with cystic lesions were also determined. Results: Diagnosis of odontogenic cyst was made in 847 cases and accounted for 10.9% of all lesions biopsied (7748) throughout the period. Mean age of the patient was 28.2 years, and 57.3% were males. The overall male to female ratio was 1.34:1. Radicular cyst was most prevalent histological type (54.54%) followed by dentigerous cyst, odontogenic keratocyst, lateral periodontal cyst, residual cyst, botyroid odontogenic cyst, gingival cyst. The distribution of cysts was nearly equal in the mandible (51.6%) and maxilla (48.4%) with the cysts most commonly located in anterior maxilla and posterior mandible. The most prevalent radiological feature of these lesions was unilocular cyst (88.78%). Associated pathologies with cystic lesions such as displacement and resorption of teeth occurred in 14.7%. Conclusions: This study revealed that prevalence, distribution, and characteristics of odontogenic cysts of oral cavity and jaws in the North Indian population, have some differences as well as similarities with the findings of studies in different populations.
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Assessment of oral health status of tribal students in Nashik district of Maharashtra state p. 56
Anuradha Swayamprakash Gadekar, Ghanshyam Tulshiram Kedar
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_38_19  
Background: Oral health is a state of well being and is essential to an individual's general health and quality of life. “Tribal” are the indigenous native people living in isolation in natural and unpolluted surroundings with their traditional values, customs and beliefs. The tribal constitute a substantial indigenous minority of the population in India, comprising of 9.01% of the nation's total population. The data on the Oral health status of students residing in tribal Dindori Taluka of Nashik District of Maharashtra State is still unrevealed. Hence, the present study was undertaken with the objective to provide baseline data about oral health status of students from the school and colleges of tribal Talukas from Nashik District of Maharashtra State in India. Aim: To provide baseline data about oral health status of students from the school and colleges of tribal Talukas form Nasik District of Maharashtra State in India. Methodology: The survey was carried out mostly on Second and Fourth Saturday by visiting the schools and Colleges from March 2018 to August 2019. The data was collected by personal examination of each student by using oral diagnostic instruments such as mouth mirror and probe. After visual examination, record of systematic observation and oral hygiene status was noted in participant's observation note. Consent from the principal/headmaster of the concerned college/school was taken, and the survey was done with their prior permission. Results: Out of total 1530 participants, oral hygiene status of 1263 (82.54 %) students was found to be affected while only 267 (17.46%) were found to be healthy. Affected participants were characterised by symptoms of ulcers, sores or tender areas in the mouth, bleeding or swollen gums, pain or toothache, bad breathing, calculus, pain with chewing or biting cracked or broken teeth and loss of attachment. Affected participants were characterised by symptoms of ulcers, sores or tender areas in the mouth, bleeding or swollen gums, pain or toothache due to dental caries, bad breathing, calculus, stain, pain with chewing or biting, cracked or broken teeth, loss of attachment and dental caries and facets. Affected participants required dental treatment like restoration of cavities in deciduous and/or permanent teeth, root canal treatment of permanent teeth, pulpotomy or pulpectomy of deciduous teeth, scaling, extraction of non restorable teeth and extraction of over retained deciduous teeth. Conclusion: Tribal students of dindori taluka in nashik district of maharashtra state were characterized by the lack of awareness about oral health, periodontal disease, dental caries and lack of dental care, high treatment needs and limited access to oral health services. Hence it is recommended to focus on improving the oral health status and treatment needs of this tribal students.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Compound odontome with 64 denticles: An exceptional case report p. 61
Nilanjana Saha, Shiladitya Sil, Subhankar Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_17_20  
Odontomes are among the most common odontogenic tumors that consists of dental tissues organized in a disorderly pattern. The World Health Organization classification defines odontome as malformations in which all the dental tissues are represented. Here, we report a case of 12-year-old male who reported with chief complaint of a swelling in the upper right front tooth region since 4 months. Clinically, a diffuse, hard swelling was appreciated. Radiographic examination revealed irregular heterogeneously radio-opaque mass with peripheral radiolucency. Root resorption of 15 and impaction of 13 and 14 was noted along with missing lateral incisor. Surgical enucleation was done and 64 denticles were removed. No recurrence was reported. Most odontomes are asymptomatic and detected during routine dental examination. Hence, addressing the patient's primary complaint and conducting proper clinical and radiological examination may help in the early detection and intervention of such lesions with minimal complication.
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An unusual presentation of an intraoral lipoma p. 65
Apurva Mohite Khator, Mukta Bhagwandas Motwani
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_16_20  
Intraoral lipomas are a rare entity and they usually cause no discomfort. Therefore, patients are unable to notice them or tend to neglect them as they are painless in nature. This makes it mandatory for oral physicians to perform a meticulous examination of the oral cavity and accurately diagnose intraoral lipomas for early management. Lipomas are benign, slow-growing tumors of mesenchymal origin composed of fat. Intraorally, buccal mucosa, lip, and tongue are the common sites of occurrence as they have ample fat tissue but, the hard palate is a rare site. They usually occur in older individuals with no gender predilection. This case report describes a case of a 22-year-old female with a lipoma on the hard palate which was surgically excised and reported no recurrence after 1 year of follow-up.
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Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of mandible p. 69
Nihal Ibrahim Mirza, Sohaila Fatima
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_15_20  
Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO) is a rare benign odontogenic tumor. It is considered under the category of ameloblastic fibroma which is believed to be a true mixed tumor, in which both the epithelial and the ectomesenchymal elements are neoplastic in the latest World Health Organization classification. We present a case of 10-year-old male with a left mandibular mass which was diagnosed as AFO due to its characteristic histology.
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Salivary duct carcinoma arising in pleomorphic adenoma p. 72
Sohaila Fatima, Shaymaa Ahmed Sadek, Wajih Ahmed Siddiqui
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_10_20  
Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CPA) is an epithelial and/or myoepithelial malignancy developing from primary or recurrent pleomorphic adenoma. Salivary duct carcinoma is a rare aggressive malignancy of the salivary gland resembling mammary ductal carcinoma, which can occur as a component of CPA. It is a high-grade tumor with poor prognosis. Treatment modalities include surgery and postoperative (adjuvant) radiation therapy. Here, we present an old female patient with a submandibular mass which proved to be salivary duct CPA.
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Therapeutic management of lichenoid dysplasia p. 75
Shiladitya Sil
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_5_20  
Lichenoid dysplasia (LD) refers to a condition that clinically resembles oral lichen planus (OLP) and/or oral lichenoid lesions (OLL), but histologically harbors epithelial dysplasia. LD has a greater tendency to acquire malignant transformation and although it resembles OLP/OLL, many authors have classified LD as a separate and distinct entity. Herein, we report a case of a 45-year-old female patient with severe burning sensation for the last 6 months. Clinically, she had lichenoid features and histologically mild epithelial dysplasia. She had extensive lesions that made surgical management complicated. Therapeutic management was instituted for her with periodic follow-up. There was adequate reduction in lesion size, burning sensation as well as in the inflammatory component of the lesion. A proper clinical and histopathological classification system is the need of the hour for OLP, OLL, and LD that will help clinicians to identify and treat the condition.
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Rapid maxillary expansion facemask therapy in growing patients: A 2 case report and review of literature p. 78
Tanzin Palkit, Isha Aggarwal, Mandeep Kaur Bhullar, Merry Goyal, Neetika Singh, Vinit Kumar Singh
DOI:10.4103/ijohr.ijohr_18_20  
Class III malocclusion is progressive in nature and it worsens with age. Class III malocclusion is associated with any deviation in the sagittal relationship of the maxilla and the mandible; it is characterized by a deficient maxilla, retrognathic mandible, or a combination of both. It is very difficult to diagnose and treat Class III malocclusion. Many treatment approaches can be found in the literature regarding orthopedic and orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion, including intra- and extra-oral appliances. The early treatment of Class III malocclusions requires orthopedic intervention at the end of primary dentition or the beginning of mixed dentition, prior to growth spurt, which provides successful results, with good facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development, and prevents future surgical treatment by increasing the stability. Approximately 30%–40% of Class III patients exhibit some degree of maxillary deficiency; therefore, devices can be used for maxillary protraction for orthodontic treatment in early mixed dentition. In cases in which dental components are primarily responsible for Class III malocclusion, early therapeutic intervention is recommended. In this article, we described the treatment options for Class III malocclusion in growing patient with an emphasis on maxillary protraction.
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