Indian Journal of Oral Health and Research

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2015  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 7--10

Association of Oral Lesions and Immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients Not Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Pakistan


Saima Qadir, Mohyman Sarfraz, Nadia Naseem, Abdul Hannan Nagi 
 Department of Oral Pathology, Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

Correspondence Address:
Saima Qadir
Department of Oral Pathology, Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore
Pakistan

Background: Oral lesions, especially oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, necrotizing periodontal conditions and variety of other viral and bacterial infections are essentially presented in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients due to low CD4+ count. Aims: This study was designed to determine various oral clinical and cytological mucosal changes seen in HIV/AIDS patients not taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Pakistan and their relation to CD4+ lymphocyte count as no study has been reported yet in our country. Materials and Methods: Patients were clinically examined and staged according to World Health Organization (WHO) staging system. Oral smears, from n = 25 patients not taking ART, were prepared and examined microscopically using hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Papanicolaou stains. The CD4+ lymphocyte count was determined using flow cytometry. Result: Oral lesions were present in 36% of the patients with chronic periodontitis in 20%, oral candidiasis in 12%, oral pigmentation in 8% and oral ulcers in 4% patients. On cytological examination, fungi were detected in 56% smears. Inflammation was seen in 60% smears, micronuclei in 72%, nuclear atypia in 44% and dysplastic changes in 16% (grade 1 in 12% and grade 2 in 4%) smears. The mean CD4+ lymphocyte count was 338.12 ΁ 127 cells/mm 3 . The CD4+ lymphocyte count was grouped as < 350 cells/mm 3 (Group 1) and > 350 cells/mm 3 (Group 2). Group 1 comprised of n = 15 while Group 2 had n = 10 patients. Most of the oral lesions were seen in CD4+ Group 1 having low CD4+ count. When the cytopathological variables were compared with WHO clinical stages, a statistically significant association (P < 0.05) was observed in the case of pseudomembranous candidiasis clinically and dysplasia and presence of fungi cytologicaly. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of oral lesions as a marker of HIV/AIDS progression and immunosuppression as oral lesions were frequent with low CD4+ count especially < 350 cells/mm 3 .


How to cite this article:
Qadir S, Sarfraz M, Naseem N, Nagi AH. Association of Oral Lesions and Immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients Not Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Pakistan.Indian J Oral Health Res 2015;1:7-10


How to cite this URL:
Qadir S, Sarfraz M, Naseem N, Nagi AH. Association of Oral Lesions and Immunosuppression in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients Not Taking Antiretroviral Therapy in Pakistan. Indian J Oral Health Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2024 Mar 5 ];1:7-10
Available from: https://www.ijohr.org/article.asp?issn=2393-8692;year=2015;volume=1;issue=1;spage=7;epage=10;aulast=Qadir;type=0