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   2021| January-June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 12, 2021

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Role of radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and radiation mitigators in radiation therapy
Kanica Sharma, Neelkant Patil, Mohit Sareen, Nitesh Tyagi
January-June 2021, 7(1):1-6
Radiation is used in the treatment of a broad range of malignancies. Exposure of normal tissues to radiation may result in both acute and chronic toxicities that can result in an inability to deliver the intended therapy, a range of symptoms, and a decrease in the quality of life. Radiation therapy kills cancer cells by damaging their deoxyribonucleic acid. There are different types of radiation therapy for different malignancies. Radiation therapy can also deteriorate the normal cells, leading to side effects. A radiation countermeasure that can be used before radiation exposure to protect the population from the harmful effects of radiation exposure remains a major unmet medical need and is recognized as an important area for research. There are certain compounds that act to increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells or to protect the normal cells from the effect of radiation termed as radiosensitizers and radioprotectors. Other agents termed mitigators may be used to minimize toxicity even after radiation has been delivered. The aim of this article is to critically review the available compounds used as radiosensitizers, radioprotectors, and mitigators for different types of cancers.
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Antibacterial properties of cinnamon: A concise review
Darren Yew Jie Lai, Lim Wei Chua, Jing Jade Chong, Pin Xuan Chong, Anand S Tegginamani, Ahmad Termizi Bin Zamzuri
January-June 2021, 7(1):7-13
Around 700–1000 kinds of microorganisms exist in the human mouth, the main inhabitants are Streptococcus mutans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus. Dental caries is a common chronic infectious disease in the world. Plaque-induced gingivitis is the inflammation confined to the gingiva only and is correlated with dental plaque. Periodontitis is the inflammation of supporting tissues of teeth, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament. Antibacterial agents, including erythromycin, penicillin, and tetracycline are used to inhibit bacterial growth, but excessive use may cause side effects. Recently, natural products have been investigated and considered as promising agents to prevent plaque related diseases. Cinnamon has shown strong antibacterial activity against a large range of bacteria. It is high in cinnamaldehyde substance, which can reduce infections, caries, and bad breath as it has antifungal and antibacterial properties. This concise review is about the antibacterial properties of cinnamon mainly for dentistry.
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Detailed understanding of different extraction methods for the research on medicinal plants
Sushma Rudraswamy, Brinda Suhas Godhi, Hommergally Puttabuddi Jai Shankar, Mruthunjaya Kenganora, MN Sumana
January-June 2021, 7(1):14-20
Medicinal plants have to be prepared for experimental purposes and this is the first and foremost step toward attaining an excellent aftermath. The first crucial step in the preparation of plant formulations before proceeding with the planned biological testing is extraction. Research on medicinal plants begins with the preextraction and the extraction procedures, which are essential steps in the processing of the bioactive components from the plant materials. At the level of small manufacturing enterprises or in the small research settings, the conventionally applied methods of extraction are Soxhlet and Maceration. Considerable and remarkable progressions oriented to amplify the yield at an economical rate have been formed in the way medicinal plants are processed such as the modern extraction techniques and microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction. In addition to this, modifications on the techniques are constantly evolving. The selection of an apt extraction method depends on numerous factors such as the type of the plant material, the nature of solvent, solvent pH, temperature, and the ratio of solvent to sample. With such a variety of methods available, the selection of correct and accurate extraction method requires systematic evaluation. The primary objective of this study is to describe the principle, strength, and limitation of the several methods employed in the process of medicinal plant extraction in our day-to-day research which would help in the selection of an appropriate method.
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Role of probiotics in the prevention of early childhood caries
Rachita Kole, Uma B Dixit
January-June 2021, 7(1):21-25
Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common childhood disease, deemed as a chronic, infectious, and preventable disease. The etiology of ECC is complex and multifactorial; hence, early preventive measures should be implemented. Several strategies have been investigated in the past for ECC prevention. The use of probiotics in the management of gastrointestinal diseases has shown promising results. In this context, effectiveness of probiotic bacteria to re-establish a balanced oral microbiota has gained interest in the dental research community during recent years, with focus on caries prevention. To our knowledge, there is only one review, published in 2016, on the prevention of ECC with probiotic bacteria. This paper aims to present an in-depth review of probiotics as a preventive strategy for ECC. The efficacy of probiotic bacteria may be strain specific. Results of the studies investigating the effect of probiotic administration on reduction of caries risk are contradictory, with some showing reduction in Mutans streptococcus and Lactobacillus counts, while others showing no change. Long-term studies also have reported contradictory findings, with either no difference or decrease in the prevalence of caries when evaluated later in life following early administration of probiotics. As these studies offer ample evidence of the potential of probiotics in the prevention of ECC, further long-term, controlled studies should be planned to study the benefits.
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Cephalometric comparison between male and female using Tweed's analysis in solan population
Mandeep K Bhullar, Sonam Lhamu Bhutia, Sanjay Mittal, Isha Aggarwal, Tanzin Palkit, Merry Goyal
January-June 2021, 7(1):36-39
Aim: The purpose of this study aimed to verify the mean values of cephalometric values of Tweed's facial triangle: Frankfort-mandibular plane angle (FMA), Frankfort mandibular incisor angle (FMIA), and Incisal mandibular plane angle (IMPA) of Class II malocclusion patients in Solan population and conduct comparison between male and female. Materials and Methods: Cephalometric radiographs of eighty patients having Class II malocclusion, taken from the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Bhojia Dental College and Hospital, Baddi. Samples were divided on the basis of gender that is 40 males and 40 females. The following three angles formed in Tweed's triangle were measured for all the subjects: FMA, FMIA, and IMPA. Taking these angles, the mean of all the Tweed's parameters of male and female was depicted. Result: The mean value indicates that the people of Solan district show an average growth pattern. The FMA in males (23.625) was less than that of females (26.3), FMIA was slightly more in male (56.33) than female (55.8) and the IMPA was also more in males (100.1) than females (97.9). Conclusion: The study showed no significant difference in the values between male and female; therefore, it is not desirable to have separate norms for diagnosis and treatment planning for the treatment of Class II malocclusion in male and female.
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Relationship between dental arch width and vertical facial morphology in multiethnic assamese adults
Mahasweta Dasgupta, Bhabotosh Kumar Roy, Gita Rani Hazarika Bora, Trailokya Bharali
January-June 2021, 7(1):26-35
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between dental arch width and vertical facial morphology in the Assamese population and also to investigate the differences in dental arch width dimensions between male and female subjects. Materials and Methods: Ninety untreated adults aged from 18 to 45 years, divided into three test groups, Group-I: MP-SN angle: low <27°, Group-II: average 27–37°, and Group-III: high >37°. Measurements of Intercanine width, first and second interpremolar width, first intermolar width, tooth-size arch material discrepancy were performed on maxiillary and mandibular cast. Results: The results indicate a high correlation with Pearson's correlation coefficient values (r) from intercanine width to interpremolar width, medium correlation for intermolar width. The relationship was found to be an inverse, as SN-MP angle increased, the dental arch widths decreased. Arch width varies as low SN-MP > average SN-MP > high SN-MP angle. The dental arch widths of males were found to be wider than females. Conclusion: The relationship of dental arch width and vertical facial pattern is determined by the steepness of the mandibular plane in the Assamese adult population. Since dental arch width is associated with gender, vertical facial morphology, and population groups, it is suggested to use individualized archwires according to each patient's pretreatment arch form and widths.
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Role of sialic acid, protein, and sugar parameters of saliva and serum as a diagnostic biomarker tool among oral squamous cell carcinoma patients at rural Kanpur: An evaluative case—control assessment
Kriti Garg, Rohan Sachdev, Samiksha Shwetam, Praveen Singh, Akash Srivastava
January-June 2021, 7(1):40-44
Context: It is essential to identify cancer at an early stage to reduce the disease's morbidity and mortality. Noninvasive methods such as serum and saliva analysis, in comparison to existing biopsy, can provide a cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate sialic acid (SA), protein, and sugar in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients with controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Settings and Design: Unstimulated whole saliva and serum were collected. Subjects and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva and serum were collected. From sixty controls and 78 squamous cell carcinoma patients. Serum and salivary total sialic acid, total protein, and total sugar estimation were carried out. Statistical Analysis Used: The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using the t-square test, Pearson correlation with SPSS 21 version statistical software. Results: A significant rise in the salivary and serum SA as well serum protein was observed in OSCC study patients as compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum, and salivary sugar also show significant results. Furthermore, serum and salivary SA levels were found to be significantly increased with histopathological grading. Conclusions: The present study showed a significant and gradual increase in serum and salivary SA, protein, and sugar from control to oral cancer. From this study, we can suggest that SA can be used as a reliable biomarker in saliva for screening and early detection of oral cancer.
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Retrieval of separated instrument from the root canal using ultrasonics: A report of two cases
Saurabh Ramtekkar, Sonia Baghla, Manjusha Warhadpande, Darshan Dakshindas
January-June 2021, 7(1):45-48
Every dental clinician may have encountered instrument separation during root canal treatment. Separation of endodontic instrument in the root canal affects accessibility to the apical foramen of root thus compromising cleaning and shaping, which ultimately affects success of treatment. The traditional methods to recover separated instruments often require removal of large amount of tooth structure, potentially leading to perforation and even root fracture. Today, these dangers can be minimized with innovations in technology such as dental operating microscope and ultrasonics. The present two cases highlight on the successful retrieval of separated instruments from the coronal and middle third of the root canals using ultrasonics under dental operating microscope.
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